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Growin’ Green

Berries Galore Beautify Winter Landscape

By Brent Gray

Who says the winter landscape can’t be colorful and interesting, especially if you have an abundant supply of trees and shrubs that bear winter berries? Most gardening folks tend to call any showy fruit a berry. Now, if we want to be “botanically correct” a fruit is a ripened ovary that forms around fertilized ovules that become seeds.
There are many types of fruit based on their structure. A “berry” is just one of these types of fruit.  A true berry, botanically speaking, has fleshy pulp filled with multiple seeds. A blueberry and nandina are true berries and, believe it or not, so are a tomato as well as a honeysuckle. Contrary to what you may think, a “drupe” is not a condition of a tired gardener, but is a type of fruit that has a single hard seed like a cherry or peach. This hard seed is sometimes described as a pit or stone. Some of our most beautiful winter berries are actually drupes.  These include holly, beautyberry, coralberry, dogwood, glory bower and viburnum.  Another odd name to describe a unique fruit is a pome. An apple is a pome fruit. The fleshy part that we eat which surrounds the seeds actually is formed from modified stem and receptacle tissue. Bet you didn’t realize you were eating stem tissue when you bite into a ripe apple! Chokeberry, cotoneaster, rose hips and pyracantha “berries” are all examples of pome fruit.
Having an abundance of fruiting plants for the winter landscape is not only very attractive but provides food for wildlife, in particular, our feathered friends. Hungry birds can strip an entire shrub in a day.  Planting fruit-bearing plants in mass, if you have the space, can ensure an ample food supply without taking away from the attractiveness of the display.
Be aware that some of our berried plants are invasive both in the garden and in native habitats beyond the garden.  Bright, colorful berries are attractive and are nature’s way of ensuring that birds and animals consume and disperse the seeds near and far. This is a great system for our native plant species, but when the species is an exotic invasive it is not so good.  For example, one of our most destructive invasive species is the privet (Ligustrum sp.) which is spread mainly by birds.   Nandina and eleagnus are just a couple of our landscape plants that can escape into the wild. It’s always wise to familiarize yourself with a plant’s origin and habits before you buy it.  
So, enjoy the many “berries” of the winter landscape, but be mindful of those plants that could become to “berry bountiful” and spread themselves around too much.   Also, it just might be fun to share your new botany terminology with your friends and neighbors. Be prepared to have folks think you are a little odd when you refer to a ripe tomato as a berry. You might get some strange looks, as well, when you talk about using those red holly drupes to make your Christmas wreath!

The rollercoaster temperatures we have been having often cause cool season vegetables to bolt to flowers. Once the seed stalk starts growing the plant sends all of its energy to the flower buds and flowers. The best thing to do is harvest the greens, cauliflower, or lettuce at the first sign of a seed stalk. The leaves will grow more bitter as the flower stalk develops.
The good news about these temperatures is it will allow newly transplanted onions to develop roots and new leaves. Onion plants should be about the diameter of a pencil  when they are put deep enough in the soil to make them stand upright. Deeper planting is better than having the roots at the soil surface. The bulb forms from the top, so don’t worry much about the bulb having to push soil out of the way.
Catalogues are arriving and there are some interesting new vegetables to try. One new twist is a cross between Brussels sprouts and kale that forms miniature kale heads in the leaf axils where Brussels sprouts have miniature cabbage heads.  This is a large plant that takes as much as four months to provide the little heads so it is more of a conversation piece than a food source. You can be the first one to try “Flower Sprouts” or “Kalettes”

Horticulture Tips
Lelia Kelly, David Nagel

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